Hypertension In Nigeria

Hypertension

What Is Hypertension?
Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure, it is a state of great psychological stress.
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of the arteries as blood flows through them.
If a person has high blood pressure it means that the walls of the arteries are receiving too much pressure repeatedly – the pressure needs to be chronically elevated for a diagnosis of hypertension to be confirmed. In medicine chronic means for a sustained period; persistent.

High blood pressure statistics

Normal blood pressure is below 120 systolic and below 80 diastolic
Prehypertension is 120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic
Stage 1 high blood pressure (hypertension) is 140-159 systolic or 90-99 diastolic
Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) is 160 or higher systolic or 100 or higher diastolic
A hypertensive crisis (a medical emergency) is when blood pressure is above 180 systolic or above 110 diastolic.
Causes of Hypertension
It is not always clear what causes high blood pressure, but several factors and conditions may increase the chances of having it. You can have high blood pressure if you are:

Eating too much salt in your diet
Not doing exercise and other physical activity
Overweight or obese
Not eating enough fruit and vegetables
Smoking
Taking too much alcohol
The underlying condition could also trigger hypertension or cause it. This type of high blood pressure is called secondary hypertension, it tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than does primary hypertension. Conditions such as these:

Genetics (Family history of high blood pressure)
Kidney problems
Older age
Stress
Sleep apnea (not enough sleep or have disturbed sleep)
Thyroid problems
Taking certain medications, such as birth control pills, cold remedies, over-the-counter pain relievers.
Symptoms/Signs of Hypertension
High blood pressure is generally a chronic condition and is often associated with few or no symptoms.
Hypertension may not produce any symptoms, even if you have had it for years. That’s why it is sometimes referred to as a “silent killer.
It is usually when blood pressure spikes suddenly and extremely enough to be considered as Hypertensive Crisis
The Symptoms of Hypertensive Crisis
As mentioned above, only when blood pressure readings 180 systolic and below 110 diastolic. that is when the symptoms could occur. Blood pressure this high is known as a hypertensive crisis, and emergency medical treatment is needed.
When the reading is a high person in hypertensive crisis may experience:

Nosebleeds
Severe headaches
Severe anxiety
Shortness of breath


How to diagnose Hypertension
Blood pressure is most often measured with a device known as a sphygmomanometer, which consists of a stethoscope, arm cuff, dial, pump, and valve.
Your doctor or a specialist will usually place an inflatable arm cuff around your arm and measure your blood pressure using a pressure-measuring gauge. He will check which category out of the four categories that we have then he will know where you belong and what to recommend.

Blood pressure measurements fall into four general categories:

Category 1: Normal blood pressure. If your blood pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg, then your blood pressure is normal.
Category 2: Prehypertension. When it ranges from 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 80 to 89 mm Hg then it means you have prehypertension, which is systolic pressure. Prehypertension tends to get worse over time.
Category 3: Stage 1 Hypertension. Stage 1 hypertension is a systolic pressure ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure ranging from 90 to 99 mm Hg.
Category 4: Stage 2 Hypertension. More severe hypertension, stage 2 hypertension is a systolic pressure of 160/180 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic pressure of 100 m/110m Hg or higher.

How to Prevent Hypertension
By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in a healthy range and lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.

Comply with medication prescriptions
Eating a healthy diet
Exercise regularly
Monitor your BP
Maintain a healthy weight
Manage stress
Quit smoking( cigarette, tobacco, Marijuana …)
Reducing your salt intake
Stop drinking alcohol
Understand hot tub safety
Treatment for Hypertension
Note:
Before you buy or take any of these drugs below consult your doctor. Self-medication could be dangerous. BEWARE!!!
There are four categories of high blood pressure drug and there are:

ACE inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Calcium-channel blockers
‘Water’ tablets (diuretics)
Beta-blockers


ACE inhibitors:
ACE inhibitors work by reducing the amount of a chemical that you make in your bloodstream, called angiotensin II. This chemical tends to narrow (constrict) blood vessels. Therefore, less of this chemical causes the blood vessels to relax and widen, and so the pressure of blood within the blood vessels is reduced.
There are various types and brands of ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, and trandolapril. An ACE inhibitor is particularly useful if you also have heart failure or diabetes. ACE inhibitors should not be taken by people with certain types of kidney problems, people with some types of artery problems, and those who are pregnant. You will need a blood test before starting an ACE inhibitor. This will check that your kidneys are working well. The blood test is repeated within two weeks after starting the medicine, and within two weeks after any increase in dose. Then, a yearly blood test is usual.

Angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs)
ARBs work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. They’re often recommended if ACE inhibitors cause troublesome side effects.
Common examples are candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, valsartan and olmesartan.
Possible side effects include dizziness, headaches, and cold or flu-like symptoms.
Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure by widening your blood vessels.
Common examples are amlodipine, felodipine, and nifedipine. Other medicines such as diltiazem and verapamil are also available. Possible side effects include headaches, swollen ankles, and constipation.
Drinking grapefruit juice while taking some calcium channel blockers can increase your risk of side effects.

Water tablets (diuretics)
Sometimes known as water pills, diuretics work by flushing excess water and salt from the body through urine. They’re often used if calcium channel blockers cause troublesome side effects. Common examples are indapamide and bendroflumethiazide. Possible side effects include dizziness when standing up, increased thirst, needing to go to the toilet frequently, and a rash.
Low potassium level (hypokalaemia) and low sodium level (hyponatremia) may also be seen after long-term use.
Beta-blockers
Again, there are various types and brands of beta-blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, bisoprolol, metoprolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, and timolol. They work by slowing the heart rate and reducing the force of the heart. These actions lower the blood pressure. Beta-blockers are also commonly used to treat angina and some other conditions. You should not normally take a beta-blocker if you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or certain types of heart or blood vessel problems.
Generic name Common brand names
chlorthalidone Hygroton*
chlorothiazide Diuril*
furosemide Lasix*
hydrochlorothiazide Esidrix, Hydrodiuril, Microzide*
indapamide Lozol*
metolazone Mykrox, Zaroxolyn
Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride hydrochloride Midamar*
spironolactone Aldactone*
triamterene Dyrenium*
Loop diuretic bumetanide Bumex*
Combination diuretics
amiloride hydrochloride + hydrochlorothiazide Moduretic*
spironolactone + hydrochlorothiazide Aldactazide*
triamterene + hydrochlorothiazide Dyazide, Maxzide

Notice:
All hypertension drug some side effect or the other, these are possible side effect you may experience:
ACE inhibitors side effects:

Chronic dry, hacking cough
Loss of taste
Skin rash
Do not get pregnant while using an ACE inhibitor or an ARB. These drugs have been shown to be dangerous to both mother and baby during pregnancy. They can cause low blood pressure, severe kidney failure, excess potassium, and even death of the newborn.
Angiotensin receptor blockers side effects:

May cause occasional dizziness
ARBs should not be used during pregnancy. Medications that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury or even death to a developing fetus. When pregnancy is detected, consult your healthcare professional as soon as possible.
Calcium channel blockers side effects:

Constipation
Dizziness
Headache
Palpitations
Swollen ankles
Beta-blockers side effects:

Cold hands and feet
Insomnia
Slow heartbeat
Symptoms of asthma
It might cause impotence
Tiredness or depression
Impotence may also occur
If you are taking medication for diabetes, inform your doctor before you start beta-blockers.
Tell your doctor before you become pregnant.
Water tablets (diuretics) side effects:
Weakness
Leg cramps or tiredness
It causes significant potassium loss
Some people suffer from attacks of gout
It can increase blood sugar levels.

Complications of Hypertension
High blood pressure can also damage the walls of the arteries. With time, hypertension if not control could lead to heart disease, kidney disease…
Aneurysm: Increased blood pressure can cause your blood vessels to weaken and bulge, forming an aneurysm. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening.
Heart attack or stroke: High blood pressure can cause hardening and thickening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), which can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or other complications.
Heart failure: To pump blood against the higher pressure in your vessels, your heart muscle thickens. Eventually, the thickened muscle may have a hard time pumping enough blood to meet your body’s needs, which can lead to heart failure. Weakened and narrowed blood vessels in your kidneys. This can prevent these organs from functioning normally.
Thickened, narrowed, or torn blood vessels in the eyes: This can result in vision loss or blindness.
Metabolic syndrome: This syndrome is a cluster of disorders of your body’s metabolism, including increased waist circumference; high triglycerides; low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol; high blood pressure; and high insulin levels. These conditions make you more likely to develop diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
The trouble with memory or understanding: Uncontrolled high blood pressure may also affect your ability to think, remember, and learn. The trouble with memory or understanding concepts is more common in people with high blood pressure.

Culled From https://www.nigeriagalleria.com/Community-Health/Hypertension.html

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